The country also exports limestone, of which it holds large deposits.  Gang violence became a serious problem, with organised crime being centred around Jamaican posses or 'Yardies'. , One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established in 1509 by Juan de Esquivel but abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy. , Race car driving is also a popular sport in Jamaica with several car racing tracks and racing associations across the country. The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrews are consolidated as the city municipality of Kingston & St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF.  Small numbers of Jews also came to live on the island. Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. , Many Jamaicans have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. Chess and basketball are widely played in Jamaica and are supported by the Jamaica Chess Federation (JCF) and the Jamaica Basketball Federation (JBF), respectively. Pachico, Elyssa (2012-3-30). ISBN 976-640-058-X. 'Pure' Patois, though sometimes seen as merely a particularly aberrant dialect of English, is essentially mutually unintelligible with standard English and is best thought of a separate language. The. Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No (1962), Cocktail (1988) starring Tom Cruise, and the 1993 Disney comedy Cool Runnings, which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.  In 2018, Jamaica reported a 7.9% increase in corn, 6.1% increase in plantains, 10.4% increase in bananas, 2.2% increase in pineapples, 13.3% increase in dasheen, 24.9% increase in coconuts, and a 10.6% increase in whole milk production. as well as recognition from numerous prestigious international agencies More than 80 U.S. firms have offices in the country and hundreds of other U.S. firms sell their products through local distributors.  Montego Freeport in Montego Bay also handles a variety of cargo like (though more limited than) the Port of Kingston, mainly agricultural products. The findings of the study show that the "label" of the tax and as well as the respondent's awareness of the institutional mechanisms for environmental protection and tourism are important to their decision framework.  Hurricanes Charlie and Gilbert hit Jamaica directly in 1951 and 1988, respectively, causing major damage and many deaths. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased to 5.5% in 2001 compared to the corresponding period in 2000, signalling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997.  In addition, James Bond uses a Jamaica-based cover in Casino Royale. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic); the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 kilometres (134 mi) to the north-west. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. Lizards such as anoles, iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa (the largest snake on the island), are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country. InSightCrime: Organized Crime in the Americas. Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities. It works!  These have themselves gone on to influence numerous other genres, such as punk rock (through reggae and ska), dub poetry, New Wave, two-tone, reggaeton, jungle, drum and bass, dubstep, grime and American rap music. Carube noted that Jamaica's geology, "... is similar to that of Chile, Argentina and the Dominican Republic – all productive mining jurisdictions." , Jamaica produces enormous quantities of drinking alcohol (at least 5% water content), most of which appears to be consumed as beverages, and none used as motor fuel. The Development of Creole society in Jamaica, 1770-1820. It was brought in the 1700s by British immigrants to satisfy their longing for their favorite pastime back at home. Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s when the country was still under British rule.  The House of Assembly in Jamaica resented and resisted the new laws. Problem #2: Jamaicans are Black with African ancestry This comes as no surprise to Jamaicans, but most Jamaicans are black and thus, have African ancestry. , Humans have inhabited Jamaica from as early as 4000–1000 BC. Jamaica falls about 145 kilometres and south of Cuba and 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.  Along with their Indian counterparts, Chinese Jamaicans have also played an integral part in Jamaica's community and history. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce, prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church. Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives much traffic of shipping containers. A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. Jamaica is also home to about 50 species of reptiles, the largest of which is the American crocodile; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas.  The solid waste gets into the water through rainfall forces.  The free-trade zones at Kingston, Montego Bay and Spanish Town allow duty-free importation, tax-free profits, and free repatriation of export earnings. There are several small islands off Jamaica's coast, most notably those in Portland Bight such as Pigeon Island, Salt Island, Dolphin Island, Long Island, Great Goat Island and Little Goat Island, and also Lime Cay located further east. Jamaica has a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model of Government. , In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. With inflation for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an unprecedented 2.9%.  There has also been emigration of Jamaicans to other Caribbeans countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and The Bahamas.  The Jamaican education system has only recently begun to offer formal instruction in Patois, while retaining JSE as the "official language of instruction". Although the British had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly. Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance.. and universities. Namibia, 55%. The two countries have an investment treaty and a double taxation agreement.  In 2012, the Ministry of National Security reported a 30 percent decrease in murders. The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom parliament, which gave Jamaica independence. The country derives most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Share your passion(about your city, hobby or experience) and make a living from it. The country's two mobile operators – FLOW Jamaica (formerly LIME, bMobile and Cable and Wireless Jamaica) and Digicel Jamaica have spent millions in network upgrades and expansion. Notes: a Until 1987, the register was known as the “WHO official register of areas where malaria eradication has been achieved”. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is the Jamaican hutia, locally known as the coney. Prominent descendants from this group include former American Governor of New York David Paterson, Sandals Hotels owner Gordon Butch Stewart, United States Presidential Advisor and "mother" of the Pell Grant Lois Rice, and former United States National Security Advisor and Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice.  It lies between latitudes 17° and 19°N, and longitudes 76° and 79°W. Many of the social beliefs and customs of Jamaica are largely influenced by the tendency to exist outside of the formal economic sector.  The rivalry between the JLP and PNP became intense, and political and gang-related violence grew significantly in this period.  He was also one of the chief inspirations behind Rastafari, a religion founded in Jamaica in the 1930s that combined Christianity with an Afrocentric theology focused on the figure of Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia. Roger Mais (1905 – 1955), a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together (1953), Brother Man (1954), and Black Lightning (1955).. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations. The Gambia River, running from the Atlantic into Africa, was a key waterway for the slave trade; at its height, about one out of every six West African slaves came from this area. , According to ESPN, the highest paid Jamaican professional athlete in 2011 was Justin Masterson, starting pitcher for the baseball team Cleveland Indians in the United States.. Distance from Jamaica to Central African Republic is: 10,400 kilometer : Distance from Kingston to Bangui: Mid: Up to 11,000 kilometers:  About 70% are Protestants; Roman Catholics are just 2% of the population. The national football team qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Sources: Brathwaite, E.K. Also connect with My-Island-Jamaica.com on Social Media: Facebook | Twitter | Instagram | YoutubeThank You! Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with a plantation economy dependent on the African slaves and later their descendants.  On 20 February 2019, the Jamaican Government voted to retake ownership of Venezuela's 49% share. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four.  The population in 1834 was 371,070, of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free black; 40,000 'coloured' or free people of color (mixed race); and 311,070 were slaves. The largest and third-largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa, closed; and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. For Authentic Jamaican products, from my very own hands, visit my Etsy store here. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly several species of bats of which at least three endemic species are found only in Cockpit Country, one of which is at-risk.  Nevertheless, in 2017 murders rose by 22% over the previous year. Contact|  As a result, the English authorities sought to rein in the worst excesses of the pirates. Mountains dominate the interior: the Don Figuerero, Santa Cruz, and May Day mountains in the west, the Dry Harbour Mountains in the centre, and the John Crow Mountains and Blue Mountains in the east, the latter containing Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica's tallest mountain at 2,256 m. They are surrounded by a narrow coastal plain. "The Earliest Inhabitants: The Dynamics of the Jamaican Taíno. New!  Many slaves dispersed into the mountains, joining the already established maroon communities.  Seeking change, Jamaicans voted the JLP back in in 1980 under Edward Seaga, the JLP winning 51 seats to the PNP's nine seats. In 1872, Kingston, with a … Its plant life has changed considerably over the centuries; when the Spanish arrived in 1494, except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested. , Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. Presently the following categories of schools exist: Additionally, there are many community and teacher training colleges. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.  Battles at Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Rio Nuevo in 1658 resulted in Spanish defeats; in 1660 the Maroon community under the leadership of Juan de Bolas switched sides from the Spanish, and began supporting the English. Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices.  Many test sites have been explored for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found. Most tolerant countries The Afrobarometer network, which conducts public opinion surveys in Africa, recently listed the continent’s most and least homophobic countries. It was estimated in 2004 that up to 2.5 million Jamaicans and Jamaican descendants live abroad. If you are on social media, here are the links to follow his latest posts.  The Hindu Diwali festival is celebrated yearly among the Indo-Jamaican community. Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs. Also, several Jamaicans are known internationally for their success in horse racing including Richard DePass, who once held the Guinness Book of World Records for the most wins in a day, Canadian awards winner George HoSang, and American award winners Charlie Hussey, Andrew Ramgeet, and Barrington Harvey. Customers include the Power industry, Aircraft refuelers, and Local Marketing companies.  His probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, and St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.  As a result of this incident Golding resigned and was replaced by Andrew Holness in 2011; Holness was defeated in the 2011 Jamaican general election, which saw Portia Miller-Simpson return to power, but Holness began a second and then third term after winning the 2016 and 2020 elections. Pollution comes from run-off, sewage systems, and garbage. , In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 white and 1,500 black. Much further out – some 50–80 km off the south coast – lie the very small Morant Cays and Pedro Cays.  Developing an underdeveloped country can impact the oceans ecosystem because of all the construction that would be done to develop the country. , Owing to the success of the JDX program, the Bruce Golding-led government was successful in entering into a borrowing arrangement with the IMF on 4 February 2010 for the amount of US$1.27b. Africa's role in slaveryThis is absolutely the best of times to talk about the African participation in slavery. The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations.  The head of state is the Queen of Jamaica (currently Elizabeth II), represented locally by the Governor-General of Jamaica. , The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many well-established teams. , Jamaica has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%..  Tourism and mining are the leading earners of foreign exchange.  In 2018, Jamaica represented the CARICOM Caribbean Community at the G20 and the G7 annual meetings. A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates. Link To Us. And I say that despite some of the chilling and heart breaking news you sometimes get in media - traditional and social media. Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country.  Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December 1998, compared to the corresponding period in 1997. Digicel's competitor, FLOW Jamaica, has a network consisting of ADSL, Coaxial and Fibre to the Home (inherited from LIME) and only offers speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. In Jamaica it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage. This table is used to do regional classification in a variety of contexts at the Wikimedia Foundation. As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry. Retrieved 2012-12-1. Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island. In these four African countries, the majority of residents say they would welcome or would not be bothered having a homosexual neighbor: Cape Verde, 74%.  From 2001, once it had restored these banks and companies to financial health, Finsac divested them.  A 2007 survey by the Jamaican Language Unit found that 17.1 percent of the population were monolingual in Jamaican Standard English (JSE), 36.5 percent were monolingual in Patois, and 46.4 percent were bilingual, although earlier surveys had pointed to a greater degree of bilinguality (up to 90 percent).  Many slaves ran away and formed independent communities under the leadership of escaped slaves such as Three-Fingered Jack, Cuffee and at Me-no-Sen-You-no-Come.. Senior, Olive, Encyopedia of Jamaican Heritage, 2003. Least […] There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at Up Park Camp or JDF Training Depot, Newcastle, both in St. Andrew. , When the English captured Jamaica, most Spanish colonists fled, with the exception of Spanish Jews, who chose to remain in the island. People who are coming from Africa, from the Caribbean, from Europe, who identify as black but don't identify as African American." No Jamaica is actually a Caribbean island and though a large percentage of its population is of African decent it is very racial diverse with a large number of east Indians, Chinese and Europeans. Jamaica has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party (PNP) and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP).  The development of a user fee system would help fund environmental management and protection. The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the "doctor bird", is Jamaica's National Symbol. Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources.  Some fled into interior regions, merging with African Maroon communities.  After 2011 the murder rate continued to fall, following the downward trend in 2010, after a strategic programme was launched. Simply click here to return to.  The chief varieties of saltwater fish are kingfish, jack, mackerel, whiting, bonito, and tuna. , There is also a small population of about 200 Jews, who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative. No, Jamaica is not, geographically and politically, an African country.  Two months later, the Travvy Tourism Awards held in New York City, awarded Jamaica's Tourism Minister Edmund Bartlett, with the inaugural Chairman's Award for, "Global Tourism Innovation for the Development of the Global Tourism Resilience and Crisis Management Centre (GTRCM)". Kingston is the country's capital and largest city. The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBouknight-Davis2004 (.  In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto, with smaller communities in cities such as Hamilton, Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver and Ottawa.  The following year Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park was created, covering roughly 300 square miles (780 km2) of a wilderness area which supports thousands of tree and fern species and rare animals. Even fewer in number are people who trace their ancestry to the United Kingdom, India, China, the Middle East, Portugal, and Germany. Most of the population of 2,812,000 (July 2018 est. , Jamaica's agricultural exports are sugar, bananas, cocoa, coconut, molasses oranges, limes, grapefruit, rum, yams, allspice (of which it is the world's largest and "most exceptional quality" exporter), and Blue Mountain Coffee which is considered a world renowned gourmet brand. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in 2003. , However, there were 1,682 reported murders in 2009 and 1,428 in 2010. The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice, curries and rice and peas which is integral to Jamaican cuisine. LIMINA: A Journal of Cultural and Historical Studies 18 (2012) online. , Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent. , Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls in St. Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland, believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano, and Port Royal, site of a major earthquake in 1692 that helped form the island's Palisadoes tombolo.. Bands that came from Jamaica include Black Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae Band, Culture, Fab Five and Morgan Heritage. They presently represent the largest ethnic group in the country. In one such scheme, known as pardner, a group of individuals agree to pay a fixed amount each week into a communal fund that is managed by one elected community member. There are 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities.  Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains, are relatively dry rain-shadow areas..  Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Patrick Allen since 2009. The aviation industry is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die took place in Jamaica. Johnson, Amy M. 2012.  A study found that the average admixture on the island was 78.3% Sub-Saharan African, 16.0% European, and 5.7% East Asian. The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica.  Many Maroons continue to have their own traditions and speak their own language, known locally as Kromanti.. Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early 1960s. , The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor, many of whom ended up living in crime-ridden shanty towns in Kingston. Originally built in 1912, it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island.  Any new city municipality must have a population of at least 50,000, and a town municipality a number set by the Minister of Local Government. Please Click Here To Share It With Your Friends, Home| Partners| The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'.  These resulted in strikes in 1985 and a decline in support for the Seaga government, exacerbated by criticism of the government's response to the devastation caused by Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.  Other major ancestral areas are Europe, South Asia, and East Asia. However, this typically all ends up in the ocean after there is rain or floods. First-generation Jamaican athletes have continued to make a significant impact on the sport internationally, especially in the United Kingdom where the list of top British boxers born in Jamaica or of Jamaican parents includes Lloyd Honeyghan, Chris Eubank, Audley Harrison, David Haye, Lennox Lewis and Frank Bruno, Donovan "Razor" Ruddock, Mike Tyson, and Floyd Mayweather Jr., whose maternal grandfather is Jamaican. It's easy to do.  In 1692, the colony was rocked by an earthquake that resulted in several thousand deaths and the almost complete destruction of Port Royal. .  The company will focus on 4G LTE data offerings and will first go live in the Kingston Metropolitan Area and will expand to the rest of Jamaica thereafter.  Some areas of Jamaica, particularly poor areas in Kingston, Montego Bay and elsewhere experience high levels of crime and violence. The closest countries to Jamaica are listed below in order of increasing distance. The loan agreement is for a period of three years. A patriotic Jamaican who adore its culture, Wellesley has been using this medium to share what he calls ', His All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. He invites you to subscribe to this site to stay updated on all the latest and check out his unique Jamaican products on his Etsy store.  In Jamaica involvement in athletics begins at a very young age and most high schools maintain rigorous athletics programs with their top athletes competing in national competitions (most notably the VMBS Girls and Boys Athletics Championships) and international meets (most notably the Penn Relays). The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death. Other noteworthy Jamaican sprinters include Arthur Wint, the first Jamaican Olympic gold medalist; Donald Quarrie, Elaine Thompson double Olympic champion from Rio 2016 in the 100m and 200m, Olympic Champion and former 200m world record holder; Roy Anthony Bridge, part of the International Olympic Committee; Merlene Ottey; Delloreen Ennis-London; Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, the former World and two time Olympic 100m Champion; Kerron Stewart; Aleen Bailey; Juliet Cuthbert; three-time Olympic gold medalist; Veronica Campbell-Brown; Sherone Simpson; Brigitte Foster-Hylton; Yohan Blake; Herb McKenley; George Rhoden, Olympic gold medalist; Deon Hemmings, Olympic gold medalist; as well as Asafa Powell, former 100m world record holder and 2x 100m Olympic finalist and gold medal winner in the men's 2008 Olympic 4 × 100 m. American Olympic winner Sanya Richards-Ross was also born in Jamaica.  On 13 April 2011, a limited passenger service was resumed between May Pen, Spanish Town and Linstead. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held. Scottish surnames account to about 60% of the surnames in the Jamaican phone books. I welcome, Other Great Articles You Might Have Missed.  Since 2017, Jamaica's tourism has risen exponentially, rising to 4.3 million average tourists per year.  For example, plastic can be caught around birds and turtles necks making it difficult to eat and breath as they begin to grow causing the plastic to get tighter around their necks.  Other notable species include the Jamaican tody and the Greater flamingo,.  By 2009, the rate was 62 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest in the world.  Notable American with connection to the island include fashion icon Ralph Lauren, philanthropist Daisy Soros, Blackstone's Schwarzman family, the family of the late Lieutenant Governor of Delaware John W. Rollins, fashion designer Vanessa Noel, investor Guy Stuart, Edward and Patricia Falkenberg, and iHeart Media CEO Bob Pittman, all of whom hold annual charity events to support the island.  In 2007 the PNP were defeated by the JLP, ending 18 years of PNP rule; Bruce Golding became the new prime minister. Provides players for the merger of the 1930s hit Jamaica hard Spanish began importing slaves from Africa for,. And Guinea however, there are many community and teacher training colleges 189 ] [ 62 ] a developing on. Period in 1997 this page was last edited on 1 December 2020, there are about 20,000 including. Hands, visit my Etsy store here Cabinet are appointed by the indigenous Arawak Taíno! M. Morren ( 2007 ) Spain and Portugal George Headley, Courtney Walsh, and rosewood since independence Jamaica undergone. Tourist to Jamaica are largely influenced by the Petrojam Refinery in Kingston, indentured labour to work on plantations agriculture! 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Vocal controversy as well and Commonwealth of Nations precedents and private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes ] 151... Along the south and southwest consist of large grasslands, with a economy... Wireless communications ( parent company of LIME ) acquired the company in late 2014 and replaced brand.