The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study. Environmental issues are the harmful effects of human activities on the environment. South Durban has the largest concentration of petrochemical industries in the country, and it refines approximately 60 percent of South Africa’s petroleum. It is not surprising that multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV became additional markers of the longstanding poor health of the black majority, despite the availability of modern drug treatments. These include pollution, over-population, waste disposal, climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect, etc. The provision of basic environmental health services is acknowledged as an important factor impacting on the quality of living environments and the health of communities. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-S1-S5. Desertification causes an increase in soil erosion, making it difficult for plants to grow. diseases in South Africa include poor hygiene and sanitation practices due to lack of adequate sanitation. Twenty years after the fall of apartheid, social and economic disparities persist in South Africa and have a profound effect on the health of the population. My Bookings; Videos; Event Archive Clin Occup Environ Med. Biodiversity .  “A review of water availability in 1996 estimated that the total average annual surface runoff was 150 million cubic metres, the maximum potential annual system yield was 33 290 million cubic metres, and total water annual requirements were 20 045 million cubic metres. Although rocks which contain calcium carbonate are able to neutralize the acidic water, Southern Africa does not have the rocks which contain these minerals. South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. South African Environmental Justice struggles against "toxic" petrochemical industries in South Durban: The Engen Refinery Case. The environmental damage affects not only the population's health, but also the species that live in the area, while also contributing to the worldwide issue of climate change. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa (it is in the middle of South Africa). Afforestation . Deforestation has become one of the major factors, which is affecting the ecological balance of not only Africa, but of the entire world. In-depth journalism on Environment matters from a South African perspective brought to you by the Mail & Guardian Online. , As the population of people moving to urbanized areas increase, the demands for food supply also grow. With the increase of population, and an increase in people who are moving to urbanized areas, the number of solid waste produced is increasing. BMC Public Health. This toxic, contaminated water kills plants and animals, while also dissolving aluminum and heavy minerals found in clean water (increasing toxicity level). South African environmental law encompasses natural resource conservation and utilization, as well as land-use planning and development. In this paper, Dr. Emmanuel Sekyere, Prof. Narnia Bohler-Muller, Prof. Charles Hongoro, and Dr. Mokhantso Makoae examine COVID-19’s impacts and implications on South African society in the social, economic, health, environmental, and technological realms. Water-borne diseases such as Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E increase, while some of the water become so unclean that diseases such as: Typhoid fever, Leptospirosis, Schistosomiasis, and Bilharzia are transmitted through water contact. Eskom is South Africa's sole energy utility, and is responsible for Medupi construction. Sulphuric Acid is released from coal mining, and although the generalizing process is slow, the time it takes for the acid to neutralize is equally as slow. The Health of the People is the first report to focus on the health of the 738 million people living in the African Region of the World Health Organization. Environmental Issues of South Africa. A Q&A guide to environment law in South Africa. Environmental issues with the Three Gorges Dam; Health issues on the Aamjiwnaang First Nation due to chemical factories; Love Canal toxic waste site; Minamata disease (1950s and 1960s) mercury poisoning in Japan; Release of cyanide, heavy metals and acid into the Alamosa River, Colorado from the Summitville mine, causing the death of all aquatic life 17 miles downstream. According to the National Wildlife Federation, biodiversity is essential to the health of the planet. Duplication of institutional functions and responsibilities existed, with unclear role definitions in some cases. In addition to finalizing the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, the country has developed a draft Climate Change Bill to provide effective national response for both mitigation and adaptation action. South Africa is experiencing significant social and demographic challenges, including internal migration, unemployment, and poor health and educational outcomes. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of environmental health challenges facing South Africa, a country in transition. , Coal mining is one of Southern Africa's main energy source, but it holds a huge negative impact on the land's water, air and soil quality. One of Southern Africa's biggest issues is the lack of clean water. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Various environment protection programs are being practised at the individual, organizational and government levels with the aim of establishing a balance between man and environment. Jun. It thus is prone to oil spill. Global Environmental Health Water quality is an important global challenge. | Wright, C. (2009). Through its work at the Medupi site, Eskom has succeeded in cementing environmental injustice in several ways, while its management knew all along what was going on.In South Africa, it is the poor who bear the brunt of poor air quality caused by coal-fired power stations. Environmental racism remains a reality in South Africa. Degradation in the quality of soil and loss of fertility has also become a very serious concern. This location causes South Africa to become very vulnerable to oil spills. Using South African examples, the paper concludes with a synopsis of the gaps in policy and delivery drawing on the policy framework of the World Health Organisation, Health for All in the 21st Century. Emerging Issues in Environmental Health. The word 'health' brings many things to mind. South Africa’s Karoo region has been in the headlines in recent years because of the ..... 19. times in South Africa in biodiversity (including ecosystems and species), our ground and surface waters are polluted; our use of land is often inefficient; and our air quality is not improving. This research analysis will focus mainly on South Africa, showing a list of the different issues found in South Africa, as well as listing the ways in which they affect the country in both the business and environmental sectors. High levels of oil is transported from the Middle East to Europe and America along the coast, making Southern African's water and ecosystem at risk to being severely damaged. Environmental health issues and concerns in South Africa are multisectoral. Despite certain areas of progress in the country since 1994, disparities in wealth and health are among the widest in the world. Other sources of environmental issues in South Africa include agricultural practices and a lack of inland water. In society, the population of the world is affected by social economic issues. South Africa's Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism estimates that over half of the population of South Africa lack "adequate" solid waste treatment, instead, waste is often dumped, buried or burned.. With the decrease in water and the high demands for agriculture, Southern Africa's land is becoming less fertile. South Africa has mined its countryside for more than a century, and that long legacy of mining has taken a major toll on the country’s environment. We can also appreciate health in a broader sense. This results in an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and a severe nocturnal temperature inversion to occur; which results in smoke being trapped in the air  860 tons of SO2 is produced from 3 of their main power stations (Matla, Duvha and Arnot), “which exceeds the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) [exposure to particulate matter] standards of 180 mg.m-3 by 6 to 7 times during winter months (Annegarn et al. This proportion is highest in developing countries, where people face multiple burdens of ill health. In addition, we have specific instances of severe environmental pollution or degradation that have potentially . USA.gov. range of environmental health issues efficiently. 5 goals. Many of the insights highlighted are likely to parallel the experiences in other developing countries. Although the government has taken initiative for growing more plants, the imbalance in nature cannot be covered by just a little effort. If the disease runs its course, it can kill within hours. 1991 Feb;8(1):19-34. doi: 10.1080/03768359108439567. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. With the combination of alien plants and the exhaustion of their lands, Southern Africa's degraded land is beyond repair. Alien plants threaten indigenous plants and reduce grazing areas, which contributes to soil erosion.. Guidelines for Integrating HIV and Gender-Related Issues into Environmental Assessment In Eastern and Southern Africa Contents Preface ii Foreword iv Acknowledgementsv Acronyms and abbreviations vi Glossary and definitions viii 1. Nitrates and phosphates found in fertilizers and sewage wastes causes eutrophication, which is harmful to other species in the environment. What is South Africa’s health and safety policy regulation? Education, skills and health; Consolidating the social wage through reliable and quality basic services; Spatial integration, human settlements and local government; Social cohesion and safe communities; A capable, ethical and developmental state and; A better Africa and World. A study at the lead mining town of Aggeneys in the Northern Cape province showed that lead poisoning in children was more widespread in this town than in a nearby non-mining town.18 In 1990, concerns were raised over contamination and worker deaths at a mercury waste processing plant in the province of KwaZulu Natal.19 Recent studies continue to point to environmental contamination around the site, and elevated hair mercury levels in poor … Poor air quality has been linked to a wide range of health issues, including SIDS, lung cancer, and COPD. As a mean to keep up with these high demands, the use of fertilization and sewage contamination also incline. Epub 2012 Jun 22. South Africa’s major public health concerns are HIV/AIDS, smoking-related diseases and tuberculosis, all of which affect the non-white population more than the white.  With the decrease in rainfall, and the lack of irrigation, Southern Africa's land and soil will soon become arid. More than three million children under the age of five die each year from environment-related causes, such as polluted indoor and outdoor air, contaminated water and lack of adequate sanitation. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IN SOUTH AFRICA SAHR KWIK SKWIZ SERIES summarises Chapter 10 of the 2013/14 South African Health Review. | Carbon cycle . Moving with the times it evolved into a blog and still one of the most highly regarded and influential sources of environmental news serving both South Africa, Africa and the World. “Durban Poison” in South Africa. 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